All the information here was collected from open source like wikipedia and was checked to cut off some personal options, fanon beliefs… to remain as objective as possible. In the later editing, some info from Profile book was added. It is an official published book, so all informations it contained are canon.
The information here was updated to catch up with the recent events in manga, so it may content manga’s spoiler.
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Name: りん Rin
Family: Father, mother and a brother. All of them was killed by bandits.
Skill: Survival on her own.
Because she has no relatives, she knows how hard it is to survive. She cannot help but obtain food by looting and savaging. She does what she has to survive in Warring States Era.
Spirit: Strength from innocence.
She is curious about everything and feels that life is something to be treasured. Also, she will innocently approach anyone, whether friend or foe. She has the strength to trust in people’s good intentions and has a gentle heart.
Rin is estimated to be approximately eight years old. At an unspecified time in Rin’s past, her entire family- parents and brother- was killed when bandits raided the village where she lived. She became a ward of the village, and no longer spoke to anyone for any reason (likely a psychological reaction to trauma known as “terror silence”).
Rin’s character is introduced in Episode 35: True Owner of the Great Sword in anime or volume 14, chapter 129 in manga. After InuYasha useed the Kaze no Kizu on Sesshoumaru, the Tenseiga saved Sesshoumaru by transporting him to a forest glade near Rin’s village. Wandering in the forest, Rin came upon the unconscious Sesshomaru; he woke in a feral state and intented to frighten Rin, but she did not run away. Instead, she splashed him with water, as if to wash his face. She came back later bringing him fish and mushrooms, which Sesshoumaru refused, telling her that her generosity is wasted because he does not eat human food. Later, the villagers catched and beated Rin for taking fish from the preserve for Sesshoumaru. The sight of her bruised face as she visits Sesshomaru again elicited some of the first hints of compassion to be displayed by his character; he asked where she got the bruises, and this bring a beaming smile to Rin’s face even as he brusquely retracted the question at her silence.
Later in the episode, Rin discovered an intruder in the old hut where she had been living. This demon was stealing from Rin’s meager stores before resuming his flight from Koga and the Wolf Demons he commands; Koga wanted the shard of the Shikon no Tama that the demon beared. After killing the demon and retrieving the shard, Koga casually gave his wolves permission to attack the village. Rin saw the slaughter and ran into the forest. However, as the wolves were faster than her and she triped over a tree root which had erupted from the ground.
Upon finding Jaken after his recuperation (In the manga, Sesshoumaru is found by Jaken, but in the Anime, its the other way around.), Sesshoumaru was about to depart the area when he catched the scent of Rin’s blood. Though he had no discernable reason save morbid curiosity, he turned and tracked the scent with Jaken in tow until he found Rin’s mauled and lifeless body. At first, he tried to ignore her and walk away, but her smile flashed through his mind and he turned back, used Tenseiga to resurrect Rin, much to Jaken’s total disbelief. After cradling her with his arm for a moment, Sesshoumaru stant and walked away, leaving the discombobulated Jaken and a wide-eyed Rin standing on the path. Still mute, Rin fell into step behind Sesshoumaru, joining him in his travels. (In the manga, the scene was cut right after Sesshoumaru held Rin up.)
By the time Rin’s character returns in Episode 44: Kaijinbo’s Evil Sword, she had completely changed from the mute, somber, wide-eyed girl who came upon Sesshomaru in the glade. Rin was smiling and laughing and chattering as any young girl does, wearing a colorful new kimono and as thoroughly obedient and devoted to Sesshoumaru as Jaken. It is obvious that Sesshoumaru had in some way provided for Rin and coaxed her from her silence, though how or why he had done so is never elaborated upon.
Later in the manga, from chapter 466 to chapter 471, in a meeting with Sesshoumaru’s mother to find a way to strengthen his sword Tenseiga, Rin was pushed in Meidou (a kind of Hell’s path) by a giant dog of Hell. Because human cannot survive in Hell, she died short after Sesshoumaru rescued her from the beast and Tenseiga could not save her again. That sword can save a live only one time.
Realize that, Sesshoumaru’s cold and calm mask became to break down. He dropped Tenseiga, held her against him and said to her and himself that nothing is worth for exchange her life with. Even his sword, the symbol of his power- thing that he had pursued all his life till that time, thing that he had desired most and only.
Sense Sesshoumaru’s pain, Tenseiga began to shine as the corpses in the Hell began to surround them. Sesshoumaru looked around and thought, with a deep pain expression, that all the corpses were just like Rin. He hold Tenseiga up to purify all the life in Hell. Tenseiga also opened a path for him to escape Hell.
Sesshoumaru’s mother had seen everything happen in Hell and her son’s sorrow, she said to him that in order to use Tenseiga rightfully, he has to know about the fear and sorrow of losing the one he held dear in his heart. Because of that, he would know about the value of life- something is precious and unique. After saying that, Sesshoumaru’s mother put Meidou- Seki on Rin and bring her back from Hell. Sesshoumaru kneed in front of Rin then to ask her about her well-being which she gently smiled and nodded.
After that, they said goodbye to the mother to continue their journey. Many things happen with Sesshoumaru and his sword Tenseiga lost its strength to Inuyasha- that was all their father’s intention from the beginning. Angry, indignant and feel so be used, Sesshoumaru wanted to throw away his Tenseiga now is useless, an insult to him. But Rin kept the sword and then gave it back to Sesshoumaru. Later, it helped and saved him in the battle which gave him a new sword and even his arm back. Tottousai said that when Sesshoumaru overcome his hatred for Inuyasha and his attachment with his sword- that means his obsession with his father’s power, he would surpass his father.